Q. For IB work, how do we handle sources and quotations in a foreign language? Can we translate them ourselves?


Quotations used in an essay should be in the language of the essay, e.g., English.  If the quote is originally in a different language, e.g., German, the original quote can be provided in an explanatory footnote or in an appendix (neither of which is included in the essay's word count).   

Translations provided in English may be stated as indirect speech (no quotation marks necessary) as they are not the actual words used, but are the writer's own translation.   The fact that all translations, unless otherwise acknowledged, are those of the essay's author may be noted in the Acknowledgements section of the essay.  If the translation is the work of someone else, then that person's name must be acknowledged.

Sources in a bibliography should be provided in the language and alphabet of the original, either preceded or folllowed by a translation and/or transliteration in square brackets, if necessary.  Note that for in-text citations, the citation is a finding device, so the in-text citation must match the first word or name in the Works Cited or Reference List.

  • Last Updated Mar 13, 2017
  • Views 16
  • Answered By Katie Day

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