MLA 9 help & quick start guides

Where can I go to get reliable MLA 9 citation help & advice?



How an MLA 9 Works Cited list is built

Citations by Format

In-Text Citations: Overview ( for more detail, visit OWL Purdue here for their In-Text Citation guide )


MyBib : ethical & transparent use of user data (No advertising, privacy policy).

Zotero : very sophisticated citation manager.

Others: EasyBib or Citefast

For more information please visit the following:

1. The also provide excellent resources to answer your questions but particularly take note of the sample papers which give you a great idea of what a correctly formatted document looks like.

2. EasyBib provide clear and easy to understand guidance for most of your MLA 9 citation needs.

3. The OWL Purdue provide a detailed MLA guide provide a far more in-depth view of each citation style so if you get stuck and need an answer for a particularly difficult question, then this is the place to go.

and of course, contact your librarians who are more than happy to assist where possible.

NOTE: If you are citing for the Extended Essay then keep the below details in mind (excerpt from the Extended Essay Guide updated May 2021, page 33, published by the IBO):

  • Students are expected to use a standard style and use it consistently so that credit is given to all sources used, including sources that have been paraphrased or summarized.

  • When writing, students must clearly distinguish (in the body of the text) between their words and those of others by the use of quotation marks (or other method like indentation) followed by an appropriate citation that denotes an entry in the bibliography.

  • Students are not expected to show faultless expertise in referencing, but are expected to demonstrate that all sources have been acknowledged.

  • Students must be advised that any audio-visual material, text, graphs, images and/or data that is crucial to their work and that is not their own must also attribute the source. Again, an appropriate style of referencing/citation must be used.

  • Regardless of the reference style adopted by the school for a given subject, it is expected that the minimum information given includes:

    • name of author

    • date of publication

    • title of source

    • page numbers as applicable

    • date of access (electronic sources)

    • URL.

  • For the bibliography, follow the minimum requirements as summarized on the last page of the Effective citing and referencing document.

Word Count

Please refer to the following guidance on what content should be included in the word count ("Word counts", Extended Essay Guide (first assessment 2018)).

checkmark Included in the word count cross Not included in the word count
The introduction The contents page
The main body Maps, charts, diagrams, annotated illustrations
The conclusion Tables
Quotations Equations, formulas and calculations
Footnotes and/or endnotes that are not references Citations/references (whether parenthetical, numbered, footnotes or endnotes)
  The bibliography
  The Reflections on planning and progress form


  • Last Updated Feb 23, 2024
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